“I don’t have a dis-ability, I have a different-ability”

Robert Michael Hensel who was born with Spina bifida.

Kennall Vale School has a strong policy of inclusion and is committed to ensuring that all pupils have an equal entitlement to high quality teaching and learning and that effective strategies are in place to meet that commitment.
We use a graduated response to our offer, which in the first instance ensures our UNIVERSAL offer includes a broad range of provisions aimed at meeting all learners’ needs ensuring high quality teaching and learning. If a child requires different or additional provisions to support their learning, a more TARGETED approach is followed based on the individual need. When there is evidence to suggest that a child requires more than targeted provisions, we seek SPECIALIST support from external agencies and make collaborative decisions with all stakeholders regarding the recommendations. To view the strategies, adaptations and provisions we include here at KVS please take a look at the KVS School Offer 2023-2026.
Sometimes, as a parent, you may be the first to be aware that your child has a special educational need. If you are concerned about your child’s progress and think that your child may have special educational needs you should first talk to your child’s class teacher and/or to our Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Coordinator (SENDCo), Mrs Caroline Parkinson.


Special educational needs are referred to as SEN. The abbreviation SEND relates to special educational needs and/or disabilities. Guidance, legislation, and regulations sometimes use the abbreviation SEND.

“A child or young person has SEN if they have a learning difficulty or disability which calls for special educational provision to be made for him or her. A child of compulsory school age or a young person has a learning difficulty or disability if he or she:

(a) has a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of others of the same age, or

(b) has a disability which prevents or hinders him or her from making use of facilities of a kind generally provided for others of the same age in mainstream schools or mainstream post-16 institutions.”

SEND Code of Practice 0 to 25 2015


Children and young people will have different types of SEND. The type of support they might need will depend on their main area of need. These are generally talked about as four broad areas of need which are described in more detail in the SEND Code of Practice 2015.

Communication and Interaction

How children communicate, understand, and play with others around them. This will also include children with speech, language, and communication needs.

Social, Emotional and Mental Health

Factors which impact a child’s overall wellbeing, such as: emotions, social interactions, and relationships with others which may result in behaviours of concern.

Cognition and Learning

This includes difficulty with learning or remembering basic skills. They may have difficulty with literacy or numeracy or learn at a slower pace than others.

Sensory and/or Physical Needs

This includes vision, hearing or multisensory impairments, physical disabilities, or sensitivities to aspects of the environment.

For more information about the '4 Areas of Need' please refer to our SEND Information Report 2023-2026.


SEN Support is provided through a graduated approach. This is set out in the SEND Code of Practice (p.100) and supported by the Children and Families Act 2014, which both state very clearly that early years settings, schools and colleges have to meet the needs of all children and young people with Special Educational Needs, including those that do not have an Education, Health and Care (EHC) plan.

Staff must use the graduated approach four-step process: Assess, Plan, Do, Review.

  • Assess - analyse the child or young person’s special educational needs
  • Plan - identify the additional and different support needed
  • Do - put the support in place and
  • Review - regularly check how well it is working so that they can change the amount or kind of support if needed

A very small number of children and young people may not make progress despite SEN support. In these cases, an Education, Health and Care (EHC) needs assessment may be appropriate. This is a detailed assessment of a child or young person’s special educational needs and the support they may need in order to learn and progress.


The 'SEND Code of Practice 0-25' promotes the use of the 'Assess, Plan, Do, Review' cycle. This cylce can be used to meet the needs of the child. It can also be used to improve practice at many levels ensuring that:
  • Individual children/young people at SEND support and those with an EHC Plan receive the best possible provision. They also achieve positive outcomes.
  • SEND provision made by an educational setting evolves to meet the needs of all children/young people with SEND.
  • The EHC Needs Assessment, Planning and Review processes support:
    • Children/young people
    • Their families
    • Educational settings
To find out more about Cornwall's approach to supporting children with SEND through using a graduated approach please click here.

ASSESS - Clear analysis is made of needs based on:

  • Views of the child/young person and their parents/carers
  • Teacher assessments and observations
  • The pupil’s current attainment
  • The pupil’s previous progress and attainment
  • Tracking of progress and comparisons with national data
  • Assessments by external agencies if appropriate
PLAN - Following assessment, the teacher, SENDCO, parent/carers and pupil, agree on a plan of action, to include:
  • Time-limited outcomes for the pupil
  • The adjustments, support and interventions to be put in place
  • A date for review

All planning must be pupil centred and outcomes focussed and recorded.

DO - All the pupil’s teachers and support staff are made aware of the plan and put in place the adjustments, support and interventions. Teachers are responsible for:

  • Differentiating and personalising the curriculum using Subject Specific Curriculum Adaptations
  • Delivery of ‘additional and different’ provision for a pupil with SEND
  • Planning, support and impact measurement of all group and one-to-one interventions. This is delivered by support staff.
  • Linking interventions to classroom teaching
The SENDCo supports teachers in the effective implementation of provision.
REVIEW - The quality, effectiveness and impact of provision is evaluated by the review date which includes sharing information with pupil and parents/carers and seeking their views.
The cycle then starts again at 'ASSESS'. The updated needs of the pupil are considered before planning a continuation of or change to provision. Further information about how the Graduated Approach model is used at Kennall Vale School, please read our SEND Information Report 2023-2026.
 Please take a look at the policies and reports below for more information.